Personagens inventadas: jornalismo e ficção na I Grande Guerra mediática (1914-1918) [Invented characters: journalism and fiction in the First (mediatic) World War (1914-1918)]
- Luís Augusto Costa Dias
- Issue 6
- Language: Portuguese
- DOI: 10.14195/2183-6019_6_3
- ISSN: 2183-6019
The article starts from the perspective, elsewhere studied, that the mass media in Portugal − which has its zero year in 1865, with the foundation of Diário de Notícias, and since 1881, with the appearance of the newspaper O Século, its unstoppable expansion − transformed the Great War of 1914-1918 into the first mediatic war. The apotheosis of the war did not lack the use of fiction, in the literary sense, what the young journalist Mário de Almeida then called a «literature of war» as a «vacant field» ready to «pass the plough above», and which I designate as war fictions. From this fictional representation came a textual corpus, published in the magazine Ilustração Portuguesa (belonging to the mediatic empire of O Século), in a set that did not complete four dozen texts in a chronological arc that extended, with decreasing regularity, from 1 February 1915 to August 28, 1916. Except for one or another author looking for a place in the literary field, the initiative came from a new and specific journalistic field in statement process, but still in half walls with the literary writings. These war fictions were intended to feed all the sensationalism of war, plus the emotion that the creation of characters could credibly lend to the climate of the conflict, that is to say a greater efficacy in staging the real, as was expected by the interlocutor in a story about a Christmas in war: “Give it some literature and there’s a subject for a Christmas tale …” Not so much for the interest of the fictional themes or narrative strategies, are the characters who, even if stereotyped and sometimes ill-defined, meet the emotions market created by the mediatic propaganda, with his example of personal determination, effort, sacrifice or moralizing glory.
I World War, O Século, Ilustração Portuguesa, journalism and literature, war fiction
Event Type :
Research seminar of the group Comparative Political History. With Matteo Millan, on armed associationism in Europe before, during, and after the Great
Beyond the watershed?
Pre-1914 armed associations during the Great War, and in its aftermath
Armed associations were a common presence in pre-1914 Europe: thousands of male European citizens owned, handled, and used guns and rifles as members of various armed associations, from military youth groups and paramilitary units to civic militias, from company defence groups to shooting clubs. Handling guns was a means of instilling patriotic values in young men and preparing them to defend the country, but it was also a fully legitimized practice for preserving social hierarchies, order, and productivity. The outbreak of the First World War was a litmus test for the massive continental experience of armed associationism. On the one hand, such groups spent the years prior to the conflict preparing for war or preserving the social order against internal enemies; on the other hand, what they experienced once the war broke out was completely different from what they had expected. The paper’s aim is threefold. First, it offers a quick overview of armed associationism in pre-1914 Europe, outlining the various types, practices, and functions of armed associations. Second, it explores what happened to armed associations once the war broke out, highlighting transformations, adaptations, and disappointments. Third, it investigates the legacy of pre-war armed associationism in post-war Europe, in which a new kind of paramilitarism – much more violent and brutal – emerged and in which the threat of revolution seemed far more real. Despite the completely new context produced by the total conflict, through their endurance and legacy pre-1914 armed associations were able to overcome the watershed of the war experience and went on to influence post-1918 Europe.
Speaker: Matteo Millan (Università di Padova)
Discussant: George Souvlis (University of Ioannina)
Picture: Freikorps in Berlin, circa 1919 (Credit: Major a. D. F. W. Deiß, Weller Verlag/Berlin).
(Monday) 4:00 pm - 6:00 pm
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